Nanosafety: Towards Safer Nanoparticles by Design. published in Current Medicinal Chemistry
The continuous development of Nanotechnology is progressively introducing nanoparticles into society. However, little is known about the safety of nanoparticles and functions of engineered nanomaterials, in particular how the physicochemical properties of the materials relate to mechanisms of injury at the nano-bio interface. While comprehensive knowledge on the potential toxicity of NPs is still lacking, as time goes by and research in the field continues, different aspects, such as interactions with the immune system, perturbation of cellular membranes, transportation of toxic moieties and others are emerging as potentially hazardous aspects of NPs. As a result, this rapidly advancing new field requires the development of novel test strategies based on the contribution of toxicological pathways to the pathophysiology of disease that allow complex toxicants to be screened in robust, mechanism-based assays in which the bulk of the investigation can be carried out at the cellular and biomolecular level whilst maintaining limited animal use. A review of these strategies will help to provide guidelines for synthetic nanochemists on how to design NPs to be safe during their full life cycle while maintaining their parental desired properties.